30 August - 24 September 2012
Nothing is without effect. Absence, non-participation has effect, being
as motionless as you can has effect.
looking out into the empty void,
always, in my body, completely still. Let it come to me what is needed.
The voyage to Tibet begins within me,
a longing for the dream landscape, fantasies about mysterious monasteries high
up in the mountains. A secret sacred place with monks or nuns. The mountains
surrounding the solitude, the life of hermitage and meditation. No one knows
you are there, no one can reach you, and no one can help you. You are your own master,
in the center of the world, on top of a pillar surveying the earth, its past, present and future.
While here the landscape sparkles beautifully
before your eyes. Exhausted by lack of oxygen you hope the goal for the trek, the
hermit cave, is beyond the crest. The reward is an enchanting landscape changing in
the shadows of wandering white clouds. The shadows are so dark they twist the topology.
The Tibetan people ́s suffering
under the Chinese occupation is beyond words. All monasteries were destroyed and
desecrated. Millions of Chinese have since then invaded the country in such an extent
that their population is now three times larger than the Tibetan. Tibetans are not
taught reading and writing Tibetan in the public schools.The Chinese characters is
prevalent in the urban landscape shown on large scale and the Tibetan in lesser.
China has made huge investments in roads, electricity, telecommunications, radio
and television. They have rebuilt and restored some monasteries and important architecture.
Everything to appease the world's view of themselves and attract as many tourists
as possible to the country. Revenues from the tourist industry are used for their
own purposes and the same applies to the country's huge assets in minerals and hydropower.
Large areas outside the cities have greenhouses prolonging the season for vegetables and fruits.
The Tibetans would rather prefer their freedom than this prosperity.
The nomads of the north would prefer to move freely with their yaks, sheep
and goats rather than being forced to live in freely obtained solid dwellings.
Nomads are wandering people who cross borders and are difficult to control by
the Chinese Government. The nomads are obstacles when the Chinese exploit the
land for mineral extraction, railway construction, hydroelectric dams and areas
for underground nuclear explosions.
Lhasa is now a city with one million inhabitants compared to 30,000 in the 50s.
Broad streets, large open spaces and a huge square in front of the Potala Palace,
which rises majestically into the sky. It is now a museum, an empty shell
without the Dalai Lama, who fled to India in 1959. The interior and the
facade are well preserved and attract lots of tourists especially from the rest of China.
What do they think when they see this deserted palace?
Perhaps they see it as castles and mansions in France and Germany when they
have lost their kings and nobility. But you could also imagine an empty
Peter's Church and the Vatican with the Pope in exile and everything being
just a popular museum. An interesting addition in this case would be that
the Italian Government would live in exile and the Italian people live
under foreign oppression.
The religious center and life has moved to the Jokhang, the holiest and most revered
monastery and shrine in Tibet. What made the greatest impression on me were the Tibetan
pilgrims walking around the entire complex. Barkhor square in front of the monastery is
heavily guarded by the Chinese police and military since the unrest and protest movements
in 1989 and even as late as in 2008. There are inscriptions on a stone outside the
monastery from year 822 with the Sino-Tibetan agreement stating they will respect
each other's boundaries, Tibetans was to remain within their borders, and the Chinese
within theirs. There has always been close relations, economic, religious and cultural
ties and connections between the two countries from then on with mutual respect until
occupation of Tibet in the 50s.
It was fascinating to see and try to interpret
their expressions while walking around the Jokhang. Was it reconciliation, compassion,
sorrow or bitterness in their faces? I was close to tears when I saw this constant
stream of people, day and night.
We made our first trip to the hermit
caves of Drak Yerpa just east of Lhasa in a minibus. It was me, Ann, Monika, Michael, Leif
and Wangyal (Swedish nun) together with Dolkar a Tibetan guide who is versed in Buddhism
and Pemba a Tibetan driver, formerly a monk who had been in prison for seditious activities.
Most of us were acclimated but we could experience some nausea during hikes
on the high altitude. Our first stop was a pass which was as usual covered with prayer
flags, a gift of gratitude and prayer for our continued journey.
Drak Yerpa hills and peaks were dotted with prayer flags as if a giant spider had been let loose foraging.
Drak Yerpa hills and peaks were dotted with prayer flags as if a giant spider
had been let loose foraging. Drak Yerpa belongs to the holiest caves in central Tibet.
Guru Rinpoche meditated here and also Songtsen Gampo, the Tibetan king who introduced
Buddhism in the country. The monastery Yerpa Drubde was totally destroyed by the
Chinese People's Liberation Army in 1959 and was never rebuilt.
What remains are the caves and chapels built around the openings. A number of monks
have returned to this scenic and exciting area under strict control from the Chinese.
The altitude of 4500m made the walks slow. We stayed in a pilgrim´s guest house.
The view across the valley was wonderful and the sunset carved the mountain in amazing relief.
We travelled northwest of Lhasa to Tsurphu, the residence of the Karmapa order,
whose incarnation is the third most significant in Tibetan Buddhism. The entire
Chinese infrastructure passed by the way, nice broad roads, power lines, cellular
antennas and the famous railway line all the way to Beijing. Suddenly we turn
left to a minor road up the valley leading to Tsurphu. The yellow fields spread
out in the valley up to the stark mountains drawn on a clear blue sky.
We stopped to photograph a group of Tibetans harvesting with simple sickles
and gathering the straw into sheaves placed on piles. Both men and women worked
together and the children sat under umbrellas for protection from the burning sun.
Out in the meadows were grazing yaks and a family had gathered on the ground eating lunch.
Beyond a large gate with snow covered
peaks in the background is the monastery of Tsurphu which was founded in 1187 and became
the headquarters of the established order at that time, Karmapa, a branch of the Kagyupa
order of Tibetan Buddhism. They are known as the "black hats" and the 16th incarnation
of the Karmapa can be seen in a photo wearing the original cap which was donated by
the Chinese emperor in 1407. He holds the hat in a firm grip so that it will not fly
away, it was considered that powerful. The 16th Karmapa escaped to Sikkim in 1959
under the Chinese occupation and died in 1981. The 17th Karmapa was found 1994 in
Tibet and was crowned in Tsurphu. But in the face of the Chinese he fled 1999 to
Sikkim in India. Unfortunately another 17th Karmapa was appointed by the Dalai Lama
and he lives in Dharamsala in India. This conflict is not yet resolved.
now has about 300 monks as compared to the 1,000 that existed before 1959. High above
the monastery in the rocks are hermit caves and chapels. This place lacks Karmapa as
Potala Palace lacks Dalai Lama, but the religious life continues, and for me it was a
powerful experience of nature, architecture and the evocative devotions with the monks'
rhythmic prayers and recitations.
Tibet is yakland, there are more
yaks than tibetans not to mention all the sheep and goats. The herds are spread
out on the plateaus with blue mountains in the background. One or two nomad tents
glimpsed beyond the river we follow into central Tibet. The nomads make use of all
parts of the animal, wool, leather, meat and milk which become butter and cheese.
I never learned to appreciate Yak butter in the popular tea drink though. We
travelled on a bumpy road with a wide and beautiful panorama of the countryside
on our way to visit the three monasteries, Yangpachen, Dorje Ling and Galo Ani
Gompa. All of them were rebuilt relatively recently. Roads have been built to the
monasteries and guesthouses have been erected. Ironically with lot of Chinese aid.
Yangpachen was completely destroyed by the Chinese during the Cultural
Revolution but have since been rebuilt. It was founded in 1504 and was the
main seat of Sharmapa line within the Karma Kagyu Order the “red hats”.
The 13th Sharmapa now lives in Nepal. Architecturally it is very stylish
and beautiful. It embodies how the monasteries once upon a time looked in all its splendor.
Dorje Ling & Galo Ani Gompa
An offspring to the Yangpachen monastery, the small nunnery Dorje Ling a
short distance to the south where we stayed overnight in a guest house. The
sound could be heard far and wide when nuns played on large horns and small
bassoon-like instruments from the monastery rooftop. The sun went down in the
west and the evening was magical.
A short distance to the north of Yangpachen, the nunnery Galo Ani Gompa was located
on the foothills of the great mountain range Nyenchen Tanglha. We slept in a guest
room with a splendid view over the flat valley, the Tibetan high plateau. Sonam,
one of the nuns, opened up her little home for cooking and socializing.
The next day before our departure to Namtso, we stopped by her sister's
family on the slope below the monastery. It gave us a real insight into a
Tibetan home with the kitchen as the main living room. Centrally positioned
was the wood burning stove surrounded with raised wide benches covered with
rugs and cushions where we sat cross-legged.
Traditionally yak butter tea is served with all
sorts of dried fruits, sweets and cakes. The children watched curiously,
a little boy was playing theatre with a hat and glasses. The family gathered in
front of a film clip with the Dalai Lama that one of our travelling companions
had downloaded on her mobile phone. It evoked great emotion and the elderly
were moved to tears. We began to understand China's fear of everything
depicting the Dalai Lama and the strict ban that existed regarding all the
writing, speeches and images of the current supreme spiritual leader of the
Tibetans. The fear stems from the political consequences despite the fact
that the Dalai Lama himself renounce all worldly political power. The recent
self-immolation of young Tibetan monks who protested against the repression
of religion and culture are considered to be guided by "the Dalai gang" from
abroad. There is of course no such connection. There is a contradiction in
allowing a religious practice that Chinese government proudly highlights but
prohibit its spiritual leaders to be present.
The holy lake Namtso is the largest saltwater lake in Tibet at an altitude of
4750 meter, 70 km long and 30 km at its widest. To the south is the mountain
range Nyenchen Tanglha with peaks over 7000 m. From the small peninsula on
the southeastern shore of Namtso where the monastery Tashi Dor is located
in mountain caves, we can see far and wide over the Grand Lake with all shades
of blue. This time of year you see rain clouds dominating the sky. Far away
you see how they pull ahead above the hills and plains. It was a great scenery
and a great experience.
On the plains around Namtso nomads wander with their herds.
Tourists and especially those from China have created a sheer
gold rush atmosphere at Tashi Dor with hastily erected shacks of
hotels and restaurants without any sanitation facilities and water
supply. The few toilets near the hotels were undermanned and
locked overnight leaving you to your own devices since the
monastery were located at a remote place. I did what I needed to
do out in the countryside surrounding the place. The dogs barked
all night and the temperature dropped in the fragile unisolated
shacks which gave no shelter from neither noise nor cold air.
Tourists arrived in large numbers each morning with caravans of
buses from Lhasa and then returned late in the afternoon.
Those who came in large SUV ́s stayed overnight for a continued
trip to the next scenic area on the Tibetan plateau attraction map.
The monastery of Tashi Dor
started out as hermit caves and expanded gradually with buildings and enclosed
yards in front of the cave openings. A variety of chapels and caves lie
around the peninsula. High standalone rocks breaking away from the mountain
are sacred pillars, crusted with prayer flags anchored in the stone.
Circulating one of them a number of times same as your own age is a prayer
for your health and recovery. You could also pay a monk or a nun to do
this on your or someone else's behalf. The passing between two closely
standing rocks became a prayer for purification. In one chapel the God
Nyenchen Tanglha rides on a horse and lives in the mountain range with the
same name to the south of the lake. Goddess Namtso who has a blue face is
seen riding on a water snake. Here is strong remnants of Bon culture, the
shamanistic cult that existed before Buddhism and is still practiced in some places.
Our minibus went back to Lhasa over the pass at Namtso and through a
valley flanked by high mountains, intersected by high-voltage electric
power lines, rivers and the long railway line between Lhasa and Beijing.
Once again we saw Tibetans harvesting the fields with sickles and
binding sheaves. Near Lhasa a thickened prevalence of greenhouses
and more motorized agriculture.
The following day we were on our way south through the grand river
valley where the origin of Brahmaputra, Yarlung Tsangpo is flowing
wide and powerful. China is greedily trying to exploit the potential
for hydroelectric power. The cutting down of forest has accelerated
the spread of desert by the river where big dunes rises. They fight
it with tree plantations and cultivation of the pads with varying
results. Now and then gigantic billboards appear with sheer propaganda
for the Chinese development of Tibet. Smiling Tibetan children who
receive schooling and nursing. The truth is that they do not even
receive education in their own language. Multiracial groups of Tibetans
and Chinese people on a billboard celebrates the cultural freedom of
the people. That fits grimly with the reality and with what the
Chinese government is actually doing. Tibetans can not travel abroad
and their relatives are not allowed entry. Where is the religious
and political freedom to be found? Does”cultural freedom” only mean
maintaining rural traditional dance, arts and crafts without any
other options and opinions?
We stayed two nights in
the town of Tsetang located at the bottom of the valley Yarlung which is
said to be the cradle of Tibetan civilization. It's here Tibet was united
and one of the oldest structures is Yumbulagang which was mentioned in the
legends 2000 years ago, but was probably built by Tibetan King Song Stone
Gampo in the 7th century.
The original fort with a high
guard tower was
completely destroyed by the Chinese during the Cultural Revolution but
rebuilt in 1982 and is now a chapel run by a small number of monks. The
valley below Yumbulagang, the first cultivated area in Tibet, is said to
be exceedingly fertile. Farmers who make pilgrimages here bring back a
handful of soil to sprinkle on their own fields to ensure a good harvest.
The monastery of Trandruk near Tsetang was originally one of
Tibet's first temple buildings and some claim it was built
before Jorkang in the mid 7th century. Tibet is likened to a
demon goddess from the early shamanistic Bon culture who is
nailed to the ground and tamed by Buddhism. Tandruk is one of
these attachment points as well as Jorkang in Lhasa. Drak Verpa
which we visited early on the journey is said to be one
of her elbows sticking out.
Sheldrak Caves were Lama Guru Rinpoche's first meditation caves
which we reached at an altitude of 4000m after hours of strenuous
hiking. We pass billowy green hills with grazing sheep on the
slopes and fearless grouses which we fed. Superb rocks rich in
minerals shifted in different colors. In a small monastery with
only one monk and his cats, we were invited to tea and cookies.
A bit further up and a steep climb to the holy caves, you had a
nice view of the valley with large parts of the Himalayas in the
center giving the place an elevated spiritual dimension.
Guru Rinpoche contributed to the victory of Buddhism in Tibet,
which resulted in the construction of Samye,
the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet.
Samye monastery was built in a circle as a mandala for meditation,
the images so important in Tibetan Buddhism, mirror the cosmic order.
In the center of Samye is the square palace, a mental image of the
sacred mountain Meru as an axis of the world surrounded by continents,
oceans, and mountains in all four corners of the world. The outer circular
wall with 1008 small stupas on the crest represents the mountains
surrounding the universe. Guru Rinpoche vanquished the demons at Hepori
east of the Samye which symbolizes the final Buddistic victory over the
old Bon culture and paved the way for the first monastery which was
built in the late 8th century by the Tibetan king Trisong Detsen.
The first seven monks were initiated here in the presence of scholars
from India and China, who also contributed a great deal to the
translation of the sacred texts into Tibetan. Architecturally the
main reception halls and chapels on the ground floor is Tibetan in
style. The second floor was built in Chinese tradition and the top
floor in Indian style.
We lived abstemious in a Tibetan hotel but had culinary debauchery in
an excellent restaurant on the main street. Here we also found a
public bath with a hot shower. Samye was destroyed entirely as all
other monasteries by the Red Army but is now rebuilt. Unfortunately
some modern buildings were erected within the monastery walls.
It was a popular walk around the wall, the “kora”, a circumambulation a
number of times and stops at the four major gates pointing
toward the four wind directions.
Tibetans also have a fifth direction towards the center.
Inside the central palace is a circumambulation with portico,
prayer wheels and vivid paintings on the walls depicting various
events from Buddha's life.
The inner kora
Guru Rinpoche meditated in the caves of Chim-puk far into the
valley to the northeast of Samye where a nunnery now is located.
The experience of recitations and rhythmic prayers in the nunnery
accompanied by cymbals, bells and drums gave a lasting impression.
Tourists crowded the path up to the caves, unfortunately
contaminating the steps with waste, plastic articles, bottles and
even prayer flags in such quantities that they lay in drifts
around the bushes.
We also visited the hermit caves north
Samye where the small nunnery of Yamalung
point on the other side of the gap. Here was a rich flora and
fauna and I photographed birds, hares, goats, sheep and yaks among
shrubs, trees, herbs, flowers, succulents and mosses.
The way up to the hermit caves was not the end of the pilgrimage.
Slightly northwest of Samye the famous Drak Yangdzong caves waited
above the Chusi nunnery where we stayed overnight in the guest rooms.
A steep 10-meter ladder led to the cave opening and from there you
had to crawl through a narrow slippery tunnel up to the wide chambers,
the most sacred parts where Rinpoche meditated. I got nauseous and
full blown claustrophobia after ascending the ladder. No matter how
beautiful the chambers were with their amazing limestone formations.
I returned feeling relieved to the safe ledge below. There, a group
of Tibetan pilgrims gathered for a cup of yak butter tea and they
treated us with sweets. Fully equipped with headlamps and flashlights,
they went briskly, happily singing, up the steps and into the caves.
This was not their first journey here.
An overnight stay at the Chusi nunnery offered a spectacular night,
a storm, flaming lightning and powerful gushing rain that penetrated
into the guest room. This was a minor discomfort considering the great
spectacle outside. The morning view of the mountains was dramatic and
beautiful like a Chinese ink painting.
On the way to lake Yamdrok-tso, we encountered a van stuck in the
rapids formed by the night's rain. We made an attempt to pull it
out with our minibus but failed. Suddenly a strong four-wheeled
police car appeared and soon it had freed the van with a little help
from us. Grateful and happy the travelling party were able to
continue their trip to the caves of Drak Yangzhong, Samye and Chim-puk.
Our karma was now improved. Powerfully floated the river Yarlung Tsangpu
alongside our continuing journey.
On winding switchbacks we arrived at the pass Kamba-la at 4700 meters
altitude and had a great view of the turquoise ring-shaped lake Yamdrok-tso
which curved off at the far distant snowy mountains. From this photogenic
place a lot of pictures were shot. You had to be careful so that the Tibetans
dressed black furry dogs and yaks were not in the spotlight because if they were
their owners wanted money!
Yamdrok-tso is one of Tibet's four holiest lakes
and is haunted by demonic creatures. The trip down to the monastery Samding was
a dream of beauty and we had to stop the driver for photo breaks. The high
altitude of the lake has tempted the Chinese administration to exploit hydro-electric
power of the vertical drop down to the river Yarlung Tsangpu (Brahmaputtra).
The lake, however, has no natural outflow, it maintains balance through evaporation,
thus causing the water level to sink by the years. This will create major
environmental problems due to overfishing in the lake which only serve the Chinese
population in Lhasa where Tibetans consider it profane to eat fish. Tibet's
need for electric power would be satisfied by small-scale energy plants from
the sun, water, wind and geothermal energy, which we saw several examples of
but China of course wants to support its growing population. The Tibetans look
with disfavour on exploitation of the sacred lake as the legends goes: Tibet
would perish if the lake dries out.
Samding monastery, located on a hill in the middle of the ring-shaped Yamdrok-tso,
is looking out over a vast plain to the south towards snowy mountains in the
distant bordering Bhutan. Meandering rivers glisten in the backlighting to the
partially marshy plains where thousands of yaks and sheep graze. Samding was
originally a nunnery, which was led by the female incarnation of Lama Dorje Pangmo.
During the Mongol invasion in 1716 she transformed all the nuns to pigs and
helped them escape. Her current incarnation is working for the government in
Lhasa and contribute to improve the situation for the Tibetans in the country.
Samding is now a monastery with 30 monks. We stayed in the large dormitory
which belonged to the guest house with a great view. The sunset and the sunrise
was a rare spectacle.
Road to Gyantse
Our drive to Gyantse began dramatically with a complete halt in the
immediate vicinity of the monastery where a truck with an incredibly
long trailer was stuck in an attempt to pass a road construction. All
hands helped out for a while and lifted away the stones from the roadside
to make a passage. It all worked out in the end after various maneuvers
of the truck and our minibus.
Perhaps the most beautiful road stretch in Tibet is between
Yamdrok-tso and Gyantse which runs over two high passes with
views over the valleys, snow-capped mountains and glaciers.
At Kharo La pass at 5560 m we had a close encounter with the
glacier which runs down from Norin Kang´s heights of 7206 m. A tourist
trap with lots of dressed yaks and Tibetans who wanted payment to be
photographed. We were caught up for a while by the souvenir stalls.
At the second pass, Simi
La at 4330 m, we discovered another hydroelectric plant, where the
meandering river reflected a strong greenish light, what was there in the water?
Gyantse is a significant historical
market town on the road to Sikkim and Bhutan. Its most impressive building, the
large stupa, the kumbum was built in the 15th century, together with the
fortifications, the Dzong and monastery Pelkor Chode. The town has not grown
boundlessly like Lhasa, but has preserved the rural idyll with tractors pulling
hay wagons. Cows and yaks outside the houses in the middle of the old Tibetan
quarter and the traditional famous spinning and weaving of wool goes on at all corners.
Gyantse Kumbum is Tibet's largest and best preserved. Its pyramidal structure
with steps is filled with chapels, paintings and statues on the various floors.
Up the shaft with steep steps you reach a circular tower on the top fifth floor
with a splendid view over the landscape and the Dzong on the high cliff in the
middle of the city.
Fortunately the stupa was not destroyed during the cultural revolution
but the monastery and Dzong have been rebuilt and refurbished to a
large extent. A chapel in the monastery Pelkor Chode held some of the
best sculptures I saw during the entire trip. They emanate a strong sense
of presence, timelessness and strength. When I decided to pay the fee to
photograph them the chapel had closed for the day.
Menacing black rain clouds had
formed in the sky when we walked down the main street. It rained heavily and we
sought shelter under some stores. Women were sitting there spinning wool and
knitting clothes. Horse carriages and cycle rickshaws passed by.
It was a steep hike up to the Dzong upper parts but we
could never enter because it was under renovation. The
entire tourist park below the Dzong with driveways and
walkways had strongly deteriorated due to lack of maintenance.
The view of the fertile plain towards the mountains that lined
the river valley excelled the strategic location of the Dzong.
The city wall surrounding the monastery served as shelter
during war time.
However it did not seem to stop the British invasion which took place
with the use of modern artillery in the early 20th century when the
English wanted to secure Tibet as a buffer state to Russia. Over 700
Tibetan soldiers died within four minutes. The English buried the
Tibetans one day and set up field hospitals for the wounded the next.
The Tibetans did not understand why they were shot one day and taken
care of the next. At night they dug up their fellow citizens and took
the dead bodies with them for sky burials, the old ceremony where the
dead were brought to high altitudes where the bodies were exposed
to the vultures.
In the twilight at night we went to a Tibetan dance on the central square
below the Dzong. The dance drew people of all ages, young and old,
modernly and traditionally dressed. As is customary when Tibetans
gather for various activities the Chinese police were present with
cars and crews. Tibetans always had little to put up against the
English, Russian, Mongolian and Chinese invaders throughout history.
The journey towards Shigatse went through a flat river landscape, Tibet's
fertile granary, ripe and yellow for harvesting. Here with both harvesters
and tractors. During the Cultural Revolution farmers were forced to grow
rice instead of barley which led to crop failures and mass starvation.
Rice does not grow at such high altitudes, which the Tibetans knew very well.
Traffic thickened near Shigatse, Tibet's second city which has expanded
tremendously since the Chinese occupation. We checked into a nice hotel
and went off to the monastery Tashilhunpo, the largest in Tibet which
remained relatively untouched during the Cultural Revolution. The monastery
is a whole city inside the ring-wall not far from the Dzong on a cliff
separated by the old Tibetan quarters almost like in Gyantse. The monastery
was built in the 15th century and became headquarters for the first Dalai Lama
but is primarily known as the residence of the Panchen Lama and all its incarnations.
The 11th Panchen Lama, disappeared without a trace and the Chinese regime has
replaced him with someone that the current Dalai Lama does not recognize.
The monastery has several mausoleums of the previous Panchen Lama. Its
very lavish stupas and chortens gilded and ornate with gemstones. In a chapel
sits the future Buddha as a 26 meter high gold-plated statue. Over 900 artists
worked for four years with the chapel and 300 kg of gold went into the gilding.
The most exciting thing was to walk up and down the alleys among the
home stays of all the monastery's monks. Many places were now in
disrepair and were abandoned long ago.
Our tour of the monastery ended up at a Tibetan opera performance which mainly
depicts stories of Buddha or the history of Tibet. We did not see much of the
opera where we stood behind a wall of standing crowds of people. Tibetans and
their families had gathered in large numbers for a picnic on the green lawns.
It was like a big party and perhaps the sight of all those happy Tibetans was
the best ending of the journey. The next morning we would travel to Lhasa and
then by train to Beijing
I brought with me a Dorje thunderbolt in brass from Tibet which would
complement the bell I had at home, a mandala, a ceremonial bowl which
sounded beautifully, seven small brass bowls, an oil lamp and incense.
During the train journey to Beijing I read a small book I had bought in Lhasa.
Very professional and initiated it treated the road to Buddhism victory in
Tibet and its development. It did not mention the Dalai Lama with one word
which was a feat. If it had the book would never have been published in Lhasa.
Drawings, text och photos
with a dorje lying down and one damaru, a double sided ceremonial drum.
The KalaChakra Mantra with the 10 sacred syllables, seven consonants
based on Sanskrit, interwoven: Ham Ksha Ma La Va Ra Ya. Three vowels
symbolized by the crescent moon, the sun and the flame.
In Swedish: PDF-